Image from page 1171 of “Post Office Edinburgh and Leith directory” (1846)

Image from page 1171 of “Post Office Edinburgh and Leith directory” (1846)
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Identifier: postofficeedinbu189394edin
Title: Post Office Edinburgh and Leith directory
Year: 1846 (1840s)
Authors: Edinburgh & Leith Post Office Directory Limited
Publisher: Edinburgh : Postmaster General
Contributing Library: National Library of Scotland
Digitizing Sponsor: National Library of Scotland

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ce and Knowledge of the Trade, enableA. O. to offer his Patrons Special Advantages in First-class Work, at Chargesdefying Competition Carpets and Washings sent for on receipt of post card. Distance no objection. SOMETHING NEW. KEEPING PACE WITH THE TIMES.SPECIAL ADVANTAGES OFFERED. Nettoyage a Sec. PARISIAN DRY CLEANING. Invaluable for Gentlemens andYouths Suits and Overcoats,Ladies Dresses, &c. No Shrinking, No Unmaking, No Alteration of Colour or Fit. ORRS SXEK7VW-KUINDRV. Washing by the most Approved Methods. No Cliemicals whatever used. Linenmade vrhite as snovy. Improved System of Dressing Shirts. Collars and Cuffsexquisitely Polished and Finished. Lace Curtains Cleaned in Beautiful Style. Uxtremecare taken of Woollen Underclothing. Blankets a Specialty. Excellent Work.Moderate Charges. Family Vashings charged Low Price per loo Articles. DecidedAdvantages offered. Hotels, Schools, &c.. Contracted for at Low Rates. G. Lewis & Sous Inset, page ; ^S3 FINE ,TJ,, PRIMTINC

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♦ ♦ SOME PRESS OPINIONS ♦ ♦ Of the Typography of Craigmillar and its Environs.By Tom Speedy. 276 pp., Fcap 4to. Over SeventyFine Illustrations. Price 6/6. Printed and Published byGeorge Levvis & Son, Selkirk. In all respects, indeed, the work is a notable addition to a fascinating and fertile field of literature No better printed book has been issued from the press for many aday than this one from Selkirk, which would thus seem to befairly on its way to becoming as famous for its typography asit has long been for its souters. —Scotsman. An exceptionally beautiful volume in several respedts : theprinting is perfedtion, the engravings are good, the history iscurious, and the chapters on the fauna, flora, and geology ofthe distri6l, with which Queen Mary of Scotlands name is in-separably connetfled, are of enduring value,—Liverpool Mercury. Refledts great credit on Messrs Lewis,—Edinhirgh Evening Neivs. The publishers have done full justice to the volume, which ishandso

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Downtown (Square-Village-Center) Roslindale, MA 1948 from Roslindale Historical Society ‘OR’ City of Boston.

Downtown (Square-Village-Center) Roslindale, MA 1948 from Roslindale Historical Society ‘OR’ City of Boston.
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Roslindale Historical Society
The story of our community, Roslindale, necessarily begins with the arrival of the first settlers in the area. Rather than settling in what is now Boston, some of the early settlers journeyed across the narrow piece of land known as Boston Neck, and made their homes there. What was then the town of Roxbury, settled on September 28, 1630, only three weeks after the official date of the settlement of Boston; it was about two miles wide and eight miles long, running from Boston to Dedham. The region abounded in rocks, and thus became known as Roxbury, originally spelled “Rocksbury.” The western part of Roxbury was known as Jamaica End or West Roxbury, and our community of Roslindale was part of this area. It was not until the establishment of a post office on March 15, 1870, that this community became known as Roslindale.

It is interesting to find the geological reasons, which influenced the history of this area. Going back 500,000,000 years, we find this region under the sea, with a volcano spouting lava at a spot near the present junction of Washington and Grove Streets. The famous Roxbury “puddingstone” was a result of this volcano and the action of the sea. With the ice age, a great sheet of ice, as the climate became warmer, created drumlins, of which Bellevue Hill is one. The water, which was trapped, formed kettle holes. Two of these kettle holes are Jamaica Pond and Muddy Pond. The Charles River, which formed the boundary of old Roxbury, formed its winding course around the glacial deposits. These windings were what made the narrow Boston Neck, which set Roxbury off from Boston. This neck was all but covered with water at high tide, in the early days of Roxbury and Boston.

As Roxbury grew, the early settlers moved out along the main path from Boston to Dedham, the Old Dedham Post Road, now Centre Street. Although there were few Indians left in the area, due to a smallpox epidemic, it is certain that this early road had once been an Indian trail. The Indians usually traveled along rivers and ponds, and would quite likely pass by Jamaica Pond and along the banks of the Stony River. Stony River began on the slopes of Bellevue Hill and in Muddy Pond woods, and went through what is now Roslindale Square. Until it was forced underground, it was an important river. The early settlers ignored the law against settling more than one half mile from the church, as well as taking chances with the wolves and bears which were plentiful in the heavily wooded areas.

As early as 1626, Miantonimo, King of the Narragansetts, traveled over the Dedham Road with his wife and attendants. King John of the Nipmucks brought Matoonis, another chief, to be put to death on Boston Common for his part in King Philip’s War. John Eliot used this road on his way to preach to the Indians. Ann Hutchinson probably traveled over it on her way to Rhode Island to seek religious freedom. With the outbreak of the Revolutionary War, the Dedham Post Road carried Minute and Militia to Bunker Hill, among them Nathan Hale and Benedict Arnold. George Washington made four trips over this road, one of which was to take command of the Continental Army in Cambridge.

A famous spot on the Dedham Post Road, near the corner of what is now Allandale and the Centre Streets, was the Peacock Tavern. This tavern was kept by Captain Child, who was a captain of one of three Minute Men companies from Roxbury who answered the call to arms on April 19, 1775, and fought the British at Lexington and Concord. Before the Revolutionary War, the Peacock Tavern was favorite gathering place for British officers, who headed there after holding skating parties on Jamaica Pond. During the siege of Boston, George Washington inspected his battle lines, which included Weld Hill in what is now the Arnold Arboretum. Washington had picked Weld Hill as a rendezvous in case the British succeeded in driving the Continental army back and in capturing the stores of ammunition located in Dedham. After his inspection in the area, Washington would partake of refreshment at the Peacock Tavern.

Opposite the Peacock Tavern, there stood, and still stands today, a stone milepost, which says: “6 mi. from Boston 1753 P.D.” These initials stand for Paul Dudley who erected the stone, as well as others on the road leading from Boston.

Another important road for Roslindale was Washington Street, called the Dedham Turnpike, which ran all the way from Boston through Roslindale Square to Pawtucket, Rhode Island. It was opened for traffic in 1805 as a toll road, and was the principal stagecoach route. Taft’s Tavern, situated at the corner of Mayo’s farm on the Dedham Turnpike, was famous for its game dinners and hearty brew. It made Roslindale a major stopping place on long trips. The Tavern later became the Union Inn until the top part of it was destroyed by fire. Eventually it housed the school, and finally the Roslindale Brach Library in 1900. In 1919 it was torn down, and in its place is the Irving W. Adams Park in Roslindale Square.

From the Revolutionary War to the last part of the 19th century, West Roxbury, of which Roslindale was a part, was primarily a rural community, consisting of large farms supplying agricultural goods to the city of Boston. There was virtually no industry. On the west side of Church Street, between Centre and South Streets, was the Weld Farm, owned by Captain Joseph Weld, and “The story of the naming of Roslindale is a very interesting one.” My father, who was a newsdealer, passed it down to me. It was down to him from the man who was reputed to have named it. It seems that in the early 1800’s, Roslindale was part of Old Roxbury. Roxbury extended from what is now Roxbury Crossing out to the Dedham Line. We had West Roxbury, which was the West part of Roxbury, then we had Roxbury, but the land in between didn’t have a name except for that of “South Street Crossing.” It was called this because the railroad crossed South Street at the street level.

The people in the community wanted to apply for a post office. The name “South Street Crossing” wasn’t acceptable to the government. So all the landowners got together to give the area a definite name, a name of distinction. There were perhaps a half a dozen big landowners that owned a great section of the community. They had a meeting, and each landowner suggested a name.

“When it came John Pierce’s turn, he, an Englishman by birth and a person who had traveled extensively, told the assembled citizens that the so-called “South Street Crossing” and its vicinity reminded him of a certain historical town he had visited in Scotland. Mr. Pierce said that the rich and romantic landscape of this section composed of so fine a variety of hills and dales, stately trees and profuse shrubbery recalled in the mind of the beautiful little historic town of Roslyn in Scotland, outside of Edinburgh. Pierce also said that this area was like a dale because of all the hills surrounding the area. So he thought that a combination of “Roslin” and “dale” would be an appropriate name. That was the name that was submitted to the Post Office Department and the name that was subsequently adopted.”

The founding of the meetinghouse on Peter’s Hill in 1712 led to this area being developed as a rural community with large farms. It was not until 170 years later that an incident occurred which brought the Roslindale area out of the farming era, and into the 20th century suburban development. This incident was the famous “Bussey Bridge Disaster.” Mr. Richard Davis has researched this disaster, and wrote this account of the famous train wreck:

“What was described at the time was first major railroad disaster in America and brought Roslindale nationwide attention occurred on March 14, 1887, when the bridge spanning South and Bussey Streets collapsed when a train bound for Boston hurled nine passengers cars over a granite abutment into a 75-foot opening caused by the collapse of the bridge. Of the 23 killed and 115 injured, 50 percent were Roslindale commuters on the way to work in Boston.”

Considered extremely modern, the bridge was constructed of iron and steel and had replaced the original Howe truss “Tin Bridge” in 1870. The lawsuits resulting from the accident nearly bankrupted the Boston Providence Railroad. After making tests of wreckage parts at Watertown Arsenal, experts fixed the cause of the collapse on faulty welding in the hangers of the iron truss on the western side of the bridge, which had to support four-fifths of the weight of a passing train.”

“A direct result of the disaster was the removal or rebuilding of hundreds of iron railroad bridges all over America. Until Bussey Bridge taught them a lesson, bridge builders of the day had failed to realize that constant vibration weakens iron structures.”

“The disaster, however, started a new growth in Roslindale. Hundreds were attracted to the scene over a considerable period of time, and they discovered a beautiful community in the country. From then on Roslindale and West Roxbury started to grow in new homes and population, attracting people from all sections of Boston.”

Mr. Davis describes how his own family came to live in Roslindale as a result of the Bussey Bridge Disaster:

“At that time my father and grandfather lived in South Boston. My grandfather was a builder in Boston, who had built part of the Old Boston City Hall. He and my father walked out from South Boston to Roslindale in order to see the disaster. And when they got there, they looked around, and my grandfather said, “Son, this looks like a beautiful country.” He said, “I’d like to live around here. Maybe we ought to move out here.” Subsequently, they came to Roslindale, and he built his home. The wreck brought a great many people.”

While the wreck of the Dedham-Boston commuter train was an immediate impetus for a new wave of Roslindale immigration, the reasons behind the growth of Roslindale are largely increased transportation facilities. During the last quarter of the nineteenth century, the West End Street Railway ran horse-drawn cars via Egleston Square through Jamaica Plain to Forest Hills There, they were met by horse-drawn cars of the Norfolk Suburban Street Railway Company that continued to Roslindale via Hyde Park Ave. Cars ran more frequently on Sundays, as visits to the country were a popular past time. The city of Boston was becoming more and more crowded as European immigrants arrived in increasing numbers. The children and grandchildren of previous immigrants needed space, and appreciated the clean air and gardens of the suburbs. They liked what they saw on Sunday Trolley rides, and began to move out in the direction of public transportation which was growing to meet the demands of the city’s mushrooming population. Boston’s suburbs, including Roslindale, began to grow. In 1896, with a West End Street Railway put its horses and cars up for sale. Electric trolleys began to run from Forest Hills to Dedham in 1896 with a West Roxbury branch through Roslindale via Belgrade Ave and Centre Street. The Boston Elevated Railway, chartered in 1984, last century. They were apparently on target in their advice, as some of the community’s active senior citizens show the healthy influence of Roslindale’s air. Mr. Clarence Wilson moved to Roslindale eighty years ago as a young boy.

“It was eighty years ago that we moved to Roslindale. On May 28, 1894, I, a boy of nine, came with my family from Jamaica Plain to live on Birch Street where I still reside. It was a beautiful day (although two weeks of rain followed), and the native charm of the vicinity with its fields of tall grass and fruit trees was marred only by the lingering odor of burnt horseflesh. A large stable (then situated on Corinth Street between Birch and Cohasset Streets) had burned a few days before the arrival of my family. About 12 horses had perished in the blaze and their remains were just being removed.”

“It had been on the recommendation of a Dr. Stevens who resided on South Street that the family immigrated to Roslindale. Frank Wilson, my older brother, was suffering from tuberculosis and the salutary climate living conditions here were sought by the family for the recuperative effect they might have on his health. At that time, no doctor knew very much about this disease. Mr. Stevens, whose house still stands on South Street opposite the playground, suggested that the best solution he could think of was to live either in Sharon or Roslindale because of their healthy situations. My father and mother chose Roslindale.”

By the turn of the century, many families were moving to Roslindale for various reasons, mainly as part of a general movement out of the city’s core as Boston’s population overflowed into the suburbs. Real estate dealers capitalized on this phenomenon, and Roslindale began to be called a “garden suburb” of Boston. Roslindale was no longer the country. Mr. Dick Davis says of this change in the Roslindale area:

“I’ve seen it grow to be one of the best residential areas in the city. And, they gave it the name “The Suburb Superb.” That name was coined by the Roslindale Board of Trade. And it really was a superb community. It was a community of homes and a minimum of manufacturing, and it became known as the bedroom of Boston.”

The people who were moving into the new suburb of Roslindale were different from the earlier settlers. As a country area, Roslindale had been largely old-time Yankee, and Protestant. The new residents were, for the most part, Boston-born sons and daughters of immigrants, and predominately Catholic. The original Yankee village of Roslindale has become over the course of its development an unusually well mixed community, first the Irish, then with the Italians and other European groups, and later with Eastern Mediterranean and Arabic nationalities. Surprisingly enough, few problems have resulted from this ethnic mix. This community has been characterized by acceptance of new groups and a joy in cultural diversity and sharing in the community for the past 40 or more years, was in the hospital. He saw a notice in the paper that all unclaimed bank deposits were going to be turned over to the state, which is apparently customary procedure. He noticed that the name of the Old Roslindale Memorial Association was there. So when he got out of the hospital, he got in touch with me. We found out that the money would revert to the state, so we wanted to reactivate it. We had to go to court. At first the judge said, “Well, give the money back.” We didn’t know who it was collected from and how much they gave. So finally, through our efforts at the State House, the legislature made it possible for us to erect a monument with the amount of money we had. Of course, Fred Davis, being a monument dealer wouldn’t have anything to do with it. But we did hire a man who designed a monument which we approved.”

Another World War I veteran returned home a champion runner. Mr. Fred Faller, a retired watchmaker who lived in Roslindale for over 50 years, tells his story as a long-distance runner:

“I went to West Roxbury High School, which was in Jamaica Plain, and did a little running in high school. After high school, I ran the Allandale course, which all the young men in our area knew. It ran about 3 and 4/10 miles. We had a neighborhood boys club called the Oakland Athletic Club. We built a hut at the corner of knoll and Selwyn Streets. After running this course in record local time for one lap, I got ambitious, and continued so I was able to do 2 laps in good time. On April 19, 1912, I ran in my first 10 miles with a fairly liberal handicap, which was under the A.A.U. competition. Given the fact that a few of the good men were in the Marathon that day, I won the race. I gradually improved so that in 1917 I was first in New England. In April 1918, I was drafted. After arriving in Paris, I found they were selecting an American team to compete in the inter-Allied games.”

The young Roslindale soldier saw opportunity knocking, and became a championship runner in the European Allied games, returning home to win New England 5 mile championship, the New England 10 mile championship, the New England cross-country championship, the National cross-country championship, and the National 10 mile championship. In this race, he broke the American record by an American citizen, and this record was held for 40 years, until 1959. He was picked as All-American in the National 10 mile and National cross-country races by the A.A.U. He went to Philadelphia to try out for the U.S. Olympic team and finished third for that day. In 1920, the final U.S. Olympic tryouts were held at Harvard Stadium. Here he won the 10,000 meter race and qualified as first choice for the 10,000 meter Olympic race and the 10,000 meter cross-country race at Antwerp, Belgium. He was the only man out of four from the United States who tried out for the 10,000 meter at Antwerp who qualified for the finals representing the United States. He finished ninth in the 10,000-meter race and 14th in the cross-country race at the Olympic games. Coming home, he won the National cross-country and National 10 miles again. He was the first man to ever win the A.A.U. cross-country and the National 10 mile for two consecutive years.
“The number of boys who went on these expeditions to the woods grew, and the use of the little “Gramp” grew as well. Out in the hills, a camp was built to which many of the boys of Roslindale who have grown up and moved away helped to wear a trail. They grew up and other boys took their places and soon “Gramp” was not only used as a personal salutation and in conversation, but as the years went by, Uncle Sam’s mailmen were delivering letters from all parts of the country which bore the simple legend on the outside: “Gramp, Roslindale, Mass.”

“A character who lived in the Roslindale woods intrigues these same boys, inspiring romantic conjecture: “There is the story of the Hermit of Grew’s woods. Grew’s woods was a section of Roslindale bordering Hyde Park. It’s almost an extension of Beech Street. There was a hermit who lived in an old hut that he had built. He lived by trapping animals and selling the fur to people. He lived by himself, and he became known as the Hermit of Grew’s woods. Some people said he had a love and he was disappointed. By birth, he was an Englishman. I don’t know whether the love affair took place in England or in the United States. He would entertain you if you went up to see him.”

During the 1930’s, the new Parkway Transcript published reminiscence about some of Roslindale’s citizens – people who implanted themselves in the community’s collective memory. Blacksmith shops seemed to have served as the “smoke-filled rooms” of a previous era.

“Parker Weeks’ blacksmith shop was the actual quarters for most of the politicians of the upper section of Ward 23, regardless of party in days gone by. Many a deal was hashed out and cut and dried under the music of the old blacksmith’s hammer. I fear if Parker had a mind to open up, he could furnish a few memories for the boys or a revised edition of the Arabian Nights.”

Characters of every occupation give a flavor of early Roslindale:

“An old Indian doctor held forth nightly for a week or more every summer in Roslindale Square. He occupied a raised platform and usually opened his nightly program with a story or two followed a general diagnosis of all sorts of diseases and a lengthy dissertation on his “cureall” which guaranteed would cure anything from toothache to smallpox. Large numbers came out nightly to see and hear the fun, but few sales were made.”

“A man named Levine once had a soap factory on Hyde Park Ave just before reaching Canterbury Street on the right for a long term of years. Years ago, he sold out the premises to a family named Mauser who remodeled the buildings and moved out to Westwood.”

The words of Roslindale people give a vivid visual picture of the way it used to be:

“On Poplar Street, where the park is now, was a block of stores owned by my mothers cousin Charles West. It was about 1919 that these buildings and the old wooden building which housed the public library were moved to make room for the park.

“The Roslindale that my father came to was very much a rural area. There were several small farms in the area. Around where the Charles Summer School now exists was a farm. It had cows and sold milk to the local residents. You came down, brought a container with you, they filled it with milk and you took it home. There was another farm on Dudley Ave (now Durnell Ave), and the Hayes Road area was at the that time all pastureland.”

“We used the livery stables and things like that when we had horses and carriages and horses and wagons. Of course, they tore down Morrison’s Livery Stable on the corner of Birch, and the Rands kept their horses over there. Then came the automobile. Of course, that meant horse stables went out of business, torn down, and stores were built in there.”

The financial and social center of Roslindale was called the “Village “ and until after World War II had the flavor of a small town meeting place.

“Well, there wasn’t much in the village. There were no stores on Corinth Street, and there were a few on Poplar Street and Washington Street. There was Rand’s Corner, and then there was the library where the Rialto Theatre is now, but that was moved, that was only a wooden structure. And there was also a movie place where we watched silent movies.”

“In the early forties, the village was the only place to go shopping unless you went in town because there were no shopping centers. Everyone was walking-the women didn’t drive. You’d see baby carriages all pushed together. The women were always down there.

“It was a town of people. You know, whereby you could go down the street and talk to other people…it was a friendly town, anyway, and everybody went about their business, and there were not many conflicts.”

In 1706, there were about 45 families living in the territory west of Jamaica Pond. In that year, Joseph Weld and 44 others filed a petition asking to form a separate Church and parish. They stated that they lived in the west end of Roxbury toward Dedham; that it was difficult for them to attend church at the First Church in Roxbury in bad winter weather; and that even in good weather, it takes a great deal of their time coming and going. They would like to be freed from taxes in connection with the old church, and ask for assistance in building a new one. This petition was largely ignored by the First Church, which quite naturally did not like to lose the income from these parishioners. So the ingenious settlers went ahead and built a church anyway. The church was built on land donated by Joseph Weld, and stood on Peter’s Hill, on what is now Walter Street, near Mendum Street, next to what is now the Arnold Arboretum.

After the church was built, again the settlers petitioned, begging the humble pardon of their brothers for what they had done. This request was of course granted, and the west end of Roxbury was made a separate percipient. The second Church of Roxbury was gathered on November 2, 1712, and its first pastor was Ebenezer Thayer.

Next to the church was the “Burying ground”, which still exists today, as the only sign of this early church. The first meetinghouse served a whole generation. When it became too dilapidated, a new church was built at the corner of Church and Centre Streets. Some of the timbers from the original church were used in this building.

Thus it was here in the little church on Walter Street that the community, which is now Roslindale, had its beginnings. Here in the meetinghouse, the people gathered to worship on Sundays, and on weekdays, to regulate the affairs of the town. From gatherings such as these came the principals on which our nation was based.

Roads played a great part in the development of all the early communities. The main road, which now passes through Roslindale, is Washington Street, but this road, called the Dedham Turnpike, was not built until 1804. Before that date, the main path or road from Boston to Dedham was what we now call Centre Street. This road was called by many names, including the Dedham Post Road, and was not given the name Centre Street until 1825. The old road traveled up the present Centre Street from Jamaica Plain, and turned left after passing Allandale Street, over what is now called Walter Street, and up South Street to the present junction of Church and Centre Streets, and then on to Dedham via Centre and East Streets. The Dedham Road not only connected the east and west portions of Roxbury, but connected Boston with providence and points west and south.

It was not until 1870 that Roslindale, until then a section of West Roxbury, known as “South Street District”, and then “South Street Crossing”, became a postal district and chose a name for itself.

Despite, or because of, the ambiguity of Roslindale’s identity, its citizens have developed a special pride in their community, which expresses itself in several legends explaining the naming of the community. Mr. Parker Weeks, a fondly remembered Washington Street blacksmith, claimed that the area was named after the Scotsman’s home:

“Roslindale was originally, of course, a part of the town of West Roxbury, but this particular section was known as “South Street Crossing.” Later a Scotchman names Laurie, from Roslyn, Scotland, build a house, now standing on Florence Street, which was known as the Freemantle house. He built an arch over his gate, and called it Roslyn Cottage.” He was very active in all town affairs and from “South Street Crossing”, the place came to be known as Roslyn, and later the name was changed to Roslindale.”

Another story holds the name to be a derivative of “Roseland”, because of the rose gardens characteristic of its fertile land. The most popular version of the naming of Roslindale connects Roslindale with Roslyn, a town in Scotland. Mr. Dick Davis, a longtime Roslindale resident, and for many years editor of the area newspaper, The Parkway Transcript, tells of the legend this way:

“Roslindale is unique from other parts of Boston. It has a uniqueness I don’t think you could match any place in the world, because it is the only town, it is the only community by the name of Roslindale in the world. I have never heard of another Roslindale. We have Dedham, Mass., and Dedham, England; Dorchester England; Newton, England. Most of the towns in early America were named after their counterparts in England. But Roslindale was a unique name. It is a coined name, a manufactured one.”

“In 1887, people had to be at work at an earlier time than at the present, and since there were no car lines, they bought five-strip tickets for 35 cents to commute from local suburbs on the Boston and Providence Railroad.”

“On the pleasant morning of March 14, the fatal train made up at Dedham at 7am had collected over 300 passengers bound for work in Boston, and had made five stops by the time it had reached Roslindale. At 7:20am, only a few moments after Roslindale passengers boarded the train, all nine cars were hurled over a granite abutment into the 75 foot chasm opened by the collapse of the bridge.”

“When the catastrophe occurred, engineer Walter E. White had the throttle at an estimated 30-mile an hour speed, approaching the bridge in a down grade stretch three fifths of a mile long, that ended in a slight curve.”

“The strain that caused the collapse of the bridge was later found to have been brought about by the weight of the passing engine, which left in its wake a slight depression that increased to the breaking point when the first car hit the bridge. After the first car jumped the track to the east, the second followed, dropping still farther. The following seven cars telescoped against the second, and were forced down with them over the abutment into the street in a tangled mass of wreckage. The majority of fatalities occurred in the fourth, fifth, sixth, and ninth cars, several of which plunged end over end into the street below to land almost upright. Cries of the injured and dying filled the air. The engine which had cleared the bridge, continued on to Forest Hills blowing its whistle constantly to attract attention while the engineer leaned out the cab window, pointing back so people would know that something happened. When the engine reached Forest Hills, police were notified to send doctors and ambulances to the scene. Meanwhile, Roslindale doctors were notified and sped to the scene by hoarse and buggy. Neighbors meantime opened their homes to the injured. Large crowds gathered and assisted in removing the injured and dying from the debris. It was by magic that a fire hadn’t occurred, for the cars had wood burning stoves to keep the cars warm. It being a mild morning, the stoves were not in use. Had it been a cold morning and the stoves burning, most of the passengers would have been trapped in the inferno. Horse-drawn ambulances and private carriages supplied by neighbors conveyed the injured to the hospital and homes. Doctors from Boston were dispatched to the scene of the wreck.

“The ill-fated bridge near the Arnold Arboretum was named after Benjamin Bussey, whose estate the Boston and Providence railroad bisected when laying the roadway. When the bridge was built, the railroad tried to change the location of the road so that South Street would pass under the bridge at right angles, instead of diagonally, thus shortening the span and dividing the stress and strain. This proposal was opposed by Harvard College, to whom Benjamin Bussey had willed his estate, because it would have meant the removal of a number of elm trees along the way.

Mr. Philip Pofcher, a Roslindale Lawyer, who, though blinded by an automobile accident as a teenager, became not only a member of the Bar, but a broker and a public accountant as well, tells how a trolley brought his family to Roslindale:

“My family history in Roslindale starts just after the turn of the century. At that time, my father had a clothing store in the West End, and was looking to move to a suburban area. He considered that custom tailoring and repairing with alteration had more of a future for him in the suburbs than would a clothing store in town. He took the Boston Elevated and engaged the conductor for suggestions and information about communities he was going through. The conductor became unhappy with all these inquiries. He told my father that he was there as a conductor, not as an information service. At that point, my father told the conductor what he could do with his streetcar, and got off. He got off in Roslindale Square. He looked around and found that there was only one tailor shop, owned by someone named Noonan. After a casual inspection, it became apparent to my father that Mr. Noonan could stand some competition.

“My father went to a man by the name of Porter, who owned a block of stores up against the railroad station on South Street. He asked Porter if he would rent him a vacant store. Porter was very anxious to rent the store to my father or to anyone else. He offered my father a free months rent. My father refused the free months rent, and told Porter that if he took the place without paying rent he wouldn’t be working hard enough. Instead, he induced Porter to reduce the rent for all the months. As my father stayed on for some time, it turned out to be a very good proposition for him.

“A few years later, about 1905, a man by the name of W.P. Whittemore, an old-time Roslindale man, built the block from 749-755 South Street. That was across the street at that time from Flood and McKay’s Market. Having built the block of stores, he went to see my father and asked him if he would care to buy the block. My father told Mr. Whittemore that he had no money. Whittemore offered to sell it to my father with practically no money down. Mr. Whittemore took back a mortgage for the rest of it. My father then moved into 755 South Street with his tailor shop. He had his tailor shop here for almost the turn of the century until he died in 1954. He was in business in Roslindale for just under 50 years.

Ease of transportation was not the only reason for increased immigration to Roslindale. Some new residents came on the prescription of doctors who recommended the “salubrious climate” of the area, particularly for the lung diseases that are prevalent.

Roslindale residents are proud of the harmony of their community and are especially proud of the achievements of certain of its citizens. Roslindale has its heroes, among them the veterans of America’s Wars. The soldiers coming back from World War I returned to elaborate “Roslindale Welcome Home Day” with athletic games and parades. Armistice Day itself was celebrated with religious observance. Father Cummins, first pastor of Sacred Heart Church, recalled the day 12 years later:

“Who can forget that memorable day? A military mass was celebrated in this church a few hours after the joyful news of the armistice reached this city. The Spanish War Veterans of Boston, those gallant survivors of the old Ninth Massachusetts Regiment, with whom I wore the khaki in 1898, and veterans of the Indian Wars rallied here in goodly numbers form all parts of the city, and sponsored the first Armistice Day Mass. Let the traditions of this day be inseparably entwined in your hearts, moving them to a manly pathos and firming them with patriotic ardor.”

One of the soldiers who did not return for Homecoming Day was Irving Adams. Mr. Frederick Mellin remembers him:

“Irving W. Adams was the first Massachusetts boy killed in World War I. He lived up on the corner of Edgemont Street and South Street. He went to the Longfellow School; he was ahead of me in school. Then I think he moved to Mechanics Art School, which is now Boston Technical High. He was the first Massachusetts boy killed in World War I, killed on the battlefield. They named the post up there for him.”

Roslindale citizens not only named an American Legion Post after Irving Adams, but also decided to his memory the center of their community, Irving W. Adams Park in Roslindale Square. Mr. Davis tells the story of how the monument came to be in the Center of Roslindale Square.

“After World War I, the people of Roslindale, including members of the different clubs and veterans organizations wanted to erect something in memory of the soldiers who had served in this war. They appointed a man to make a design for a statue to be erected in what is now Irving W. Adams Park. The price was to be ,000, so that was the goal set. They had a miniature model made of the proposed monument, and it was on display in a store window on South Street called Water’s Candy and Ice Cream Parlor. They made a house-to-House canvas and the people contributed. They were never able to raise ,000 that was needed, so the money lay dormant in the bank. They couldn’t erect another monument of lesser cost because they had received permission from the Secretary of State of Massachusetts to raise the money for this monument. So the money remained in the bank until about 20 years ago, about 1950.

Over the years, Roslindale residents have gathered memories of how life was lived in the beginning of this century when Roslindale was but a country village.

On winter and coasting”

“I remember as a very young boy before the plows came, they had a great big roller. Instead of plowing the road, why they just rolled it down. This was for the runners of the sleigh to enable it to run faster. IT packed the snow down and it was also great for coasting.

“At that time we could start up near what is now the West Roxbury Parkway, up by Bellevue Hill. Incidentally, in those days, the hill was much steeper. They took the grade off because it was very difficult for the cars, the automobiles and the streetcar, to go up the hill. If they stopped in the middle and it was icy, they couldn’t get going. So they did cut the hill down. So we could start there and on a good day, we could go right down to what we used to call the Washington Street Playground, now called Healy Field. Although we could start at the top of Metropolitan Avenue to Kittredge Street, and you go right down the line to Roslindale Square, until they threw ashes and cinders across the street so we couldn’t go shooting through the traffic.”

On the Fourth of July:

“Of course, I was always a part of the Fourth of July as long back as I can remember. At that time, the 17th of June, Bunker Hill Day, was a very appropriate day, because there was no school, and also the Fourth of July. My father sold fireworks for forty odd years, until they were banned. He didn’t sell them in his own store, but he used to have a little store on what is now Robert Street under the railroad bridge, and every year we sold fireworks. On the night before the fourth, we used to have a fireworks display at what is now Fallon Field, and sometimes they would have them down at Healy Field. Father Cummins had his great barbeque, and people would come from all over Boston. They’d have a great big ox that’s on a spit. They’d have a fire on the grounds, and they’d turn the spit over and roast the ox right on the playground, and then at night, why about 6 or 7 o’clock at night, why they’d stop and cut it up and they’d sell sandwiches. And in the meantime they’d be taking chances on wheels and pinwheels and everything. And they’d have different kinds of amusements and Ferris Wheels, and they really rolled out the carpet.”

Certain people, certain characters of Roslindale stand out in memories and lend legendary vivacity to her past. Older citizens remember people important to their youth. “Gramp” Hodgkins was a naturalist who introduced boys of the early 20th century to the secrets of nearby woods.

Present-day Roslindale memories focus on a number of colorful people; some of these are tradesmen, etc.: “One of the merchants was F.D. Rand. This store was at the corner of Corinth and Washington Streets. They were there for years and years. They used to deliver their groceries with a horse and wagon. Their wagons were familiar all over Roslindale. They were the S.S. Pierce of Roslindale, and they did a good business. Their slogan was: Prudent families buy at Rands.”

“Every Saturday, the father, Harold Rand, would go out in a nice buggy and go around collecting bills from people who owed him money. You wouldn’t have to go to the store, he’d go to see you and collect. He had a regular route every Saturday. Of course, in those days for ten dollars you could buy enough to last you pretty near a month!”

“The ragman, Liebowitz, came around on the old horse drawn wagon. He had the saddest Clothes. For many years he would come by and he would always cry “RAAAAAGS! RAAAAAGS!” Then one day there was a rival Wagoner, he used the same word—RAGS—but he didn’t have the same song!”

“The Pony Express was a favorite of all the kids in the forties. A teenager selling ice cream rode on a two-wheeled cart pulled by a pony that had a pom-pom on and bells around its neck.

The community of Roslindale, names for its lovely hills and dales, has felt the squeeze of urban living. Open space is disappearing as the population becomes more crowded. However, Roslindale is a mature community with an awakening consciousness of its identity. Recognizing the problems and challenge of urbanization, Roslindale maintains the friendliness and spirit of a “garden suburb.” The people of Roslindale live their community. There is a feeling of kinship for one another in the air, and they show a great deal of concern for their town. It is theses attitudes, this spirit that has made Roslindale what it is.


First Printing: 1974, Second Printing: 1994

David P. Kunze
Judith C. Kunze

** Photo taken in 1948/1949. From a collection of photos by the Boston Traffic and Parking Department.
Posted under this Creative Commons license.

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Maria Ventresca Bennett

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Contact us: P.O. Box 356, Roslindale, MA 02131 or 617-323-5710

Glengallan Homestead Servants Quarters

Glengallan Homestead Servants Quarters
Dry Cleaning & Alterations
Image by Alpat
Glengallan Homestead, built 1867-1868, is located on the southwestern slope of Mount Marshall at the mouth of a wide valley, running west from Cunningham’s Gap, near the junction of the Cunningham and New England Highways approximately 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) north of Warwick.[1]

This valley was the original Darling Downs, discovered and named by explorer Allan Cunningham (1791-1839) in 1827 in honour of the Governor of New South Wales, Sir Ralph Darling (1775-1858), and the name Darling Downs was later used to identify the surrounding region of open rolling country with rich and deep soils. Cunningham found a gap in the dividing range, and the following year, while visiting Moreton Bay, he found a gap which he thought was the same one he had discovered previously, and which became known as Cunningham’s Gap.[1]

This open country had been carefully and deliberately maintained by the Aborigines in what has been called firestick farming, an annual pattern of controlled burns to protect certain resource areas and pasture for native grazing animals. The Aboriginal burning pattern was disrupted within the first years of the runs being taken up, and the local Aboriginal population were soon killed off.[1]

The unsettled districts outside the nineteen counties around Sydney had been thrown open to squatters by the 1836 licence system. This system proved ineffective and in 1839 a new Act was passed. This Act provided for an annual licence fee to be paid, determined per head of stock on the run, and also provided administration by Commissioners of Crown Lands. However, the squatters still had no permanency of land tenure, and in 1847 Orders in Council were introduced which allowed further 14 year leases for established unsettled runs on payment of an annual fee per head of stock. The Orders in Council also gave the run holders the pre-emptive right to purchase the land for its fair value in an unimproved state at less than one pound per acre at the completion of the lease. Pre-emption was allowed to continue until 1868, and meant that nearly all the best land, creek frontages, water holes and portions guarding leasehold areas were pre-empted. It allowed the squatters to hold onto their land, but also plunged many of them into debt often resulting in financial ruin.[1]

Patrick Leslie (1815-1881) born at Warthill, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, the second son of William Leslie, ninth laird of Warthill and eight of Folla, had sailed from London in 1834 and arrived in New South Wales in May 1835. He gained pastoralist experience under the Macarthurs of Camden, and in 1836 went to manage the property of his uncle Davidson on the Krui River at Colleroi. By 1839 Leslie had rented Dunheved farm at Penrith, and when his brothers Walter and George arrived he decided to look for new land north of the limits of settlement. In 1840 he started with a large party for the Clarence River district, and then resolved to look at the Darling Downs. With one companion, a convict named Murphy, he followed Cunningham’s trail and relocated the Darling Downs and decided on the area that was to become Toolburra and Canning Downs for his first station. Walter Leslie and Ernest Dalrymple followed with the flocks, and in 1840 the Leslies became the first settlers on the Darling Downs.[1]

Ernest Dalrymple took up a run next to the Leslies, and all runs on the Downs were taken up by June 1841. The Leslies originally selected all the land which became Toolburra, South Toolburra, Glengallan, Gladfield, Maryvale, Warwick and Canning Downs, and had taken up a far greater area than which they were entitled under a New South Wales licence. They had to dispose of the areas that became Glengallan, Sandy Creek, and Fred (Bracker) the German’s Creek (Rosenthal) to the Aberdeen Company.[1]

The Leslies negotiated permission to bring supplies from the Moreton Bay settlement, even though it was not open to commerce. The settlement opened in 1842 however, and thereafter all the Downs squatters (run holders) were free to have supplies sent in and wool sent out to Ipswich, from where they could be transported by river to Brisbane.[1]

In 1841-42 the Leslie brothers sold approximately 42,000 acres (17,000 ha) to brothers Colin and John Campbell, Scottish immigrants, who named it Glengallan Run. The Leslies noted they had disposed of the buildings and the right of the lower part of the run for which they had no use and they had received £250 for it. This description may have included Glengallan, Fred the German’s Creek and Sandy Creek.[1]

By 1844, Campbell and Co were in liquidation, but the partnership recovered and after 1844 it appears that licences for Glengallan were issued in the sole name of Colin Campbell. Another brother, Archibald, managed the property from 1845–48 and during this time the stock numbers increased considerably, but disease broke out in 1847. Glengallan was offered for sale in November 1847, but this was not successful.[1]

The Campbell’s first encampment had been at Freestone Creek, an area which has become known as Campbell Plains, but it proved unsuitable for sheep due to wooded areas and dingo habitat. The camp subsequently moved to Glengallan Creek, known as Gap Creek, near the slope of what became Mt Marshall. It has been suggested that their c.1842 residence, described as a rude but substantial hut, would have been close to the site of the present homestead being close to the creek but above flood level, with expansive views of the surrounding area and a relatively flat terrace of land, but the exact location has not been positively identified. The 1846 diary of the New South Wales Commissioner for Crown Lands, Darling Downs District, stated the run was 120 square miles with 15,000 head of sheep, 400 cattle and 30 horses. In 1848, a NSW Government Gazette noted Colin Campbell holding leases for Glengallan totalling 60,000 acres (24,000 ha). Glengallan was located in a pivotal position on the main roads, which have changed slightly in position, from Toowoomba/Drayton heading towards the south and from the Downs properties heading towards Cunningham’s Gap.[1]

The NSW Government Gazette published a list of transfers of runs dated 11 October 1848 recording the transfer of Glengallan from Colin Campbell to the unrelated Robert Tertius Campbell (1811-1887) with whom Colin Campbell banked, and it appears that the three Campbell brothers died in 1853. Robert Tertius Campbell, whose father was a Director of the Bank of New South Wales, was related to the Campbells of Duntroon in the Monaro district, and had been lessee of Jondaryan in 1845, gained the lease of North Branch of Swamps Run in 1849, and continued leasing Canning Creek until 1852. The NSW Government Gazette dated 30 July 1852 recorded that RT Campbell transferred his interest in Glengallan to his partner Charles Henry Marshall, who had previously been his managing clerk and whom he took into partnership in Glengallan it appears in 1849-50. RT Campbell then moved on to the newly opened Burnett District.[1]

In December 1851 and March 1852, the artist Conrad Martens (1801-1878), who had arrived in Sydney in 1835, stayed at Glengallan during the course of his five-month trip to the Brisbane area and the Darling Downs in search of painting commissions. He travelled through the country making pencil drawings, many of which he used as the basis for water colours and oil paintings, which he executed on his return to Sydney. These drawings and paintings are some of the few illustrations of Queensland during this time, and his sketches of Glengallan show the main homestead as two timber buildings surrounded by verandahs and situated close together.[1]

Charles Henry Marshall (1818-1874) was born in Mauritius and had a background in Leith in Scotland and Totnes in Devon, England. He came to Australia in 1842[2] as Bookkeeper for the Van Diemen’s Land Company at Circular Head (Stanley) and was Superintendent of the company’s Woolnorth Station at Cape Grim from 1846 to 1849 after which he moved to Queensland. He was appointed Magistrate in 1849-50 and took John Deuchar into partnership in 1855. Marshall was an active member of the Church of England, and in 1858 gave 11 acres (4.5 ha) of land in Warwick to the church as the site for a parsonage and glebe. A parsonage, named Hillside, was built on the site for Reverend Benjamin Glennie. He visited England in 1857 where he married his wife, Charlotte Augusta Dring Drake (daughter of Sir William Henry Drake). The couple returned to Glengallan in early 1858, but left again and returned to England in 1860. Charles travelled to Queensland alone in late 1864 and arranged for Deuchar to buy out his interest. Marshall retired from the partnership and departed for England in April 1865, but was to return to Australia due to Deuchar’s financial difficulties in 1870.[1]

During their partnership, Marshall and Deuchar established the famous Glengallan Merino flock and Shorthorn stud.[1]

Stud merino rams at Glengallan Station, 1894
John Deuchar (1820-1872) was born in Aberdeen, Scotland, and with his sister Beatrice migrated to New South Wales in 1839. He gained pastoral experience in the Hunter River district and c.1842 drove sheep from Maitland to the Darling Downs for the Aberdeen Co, and later for the North British Australian Co. From 1844 he was overseer at Goomburra, and after two years with the support of Walter Grey of Ipswich, he bought Canal Creek well stocked with Talgai Merinos. In 1848 Deuchar sold Canal Creek, and succeeded Fred Bracker as manager of Rosenthal for the Aberdeen Co, and became travelling superintendent of the company’s properties. In 1829 Bracker, from Mecklenburg, Germany, had brought to New South Wales a flock of Saxon Merinos of the Rambouillet family from Prince Esterhazy’s Silesian flock for the Aberdeen Co. On Rosenthal, Deuchar had the first two thoroughbred Merino rams on the Darling Downs; Camden Billy from John Macarthur’s stud at Camden Park, already there when he took over, and German Billy, which he brought with him from Canal Creek. A fine Merino stud was developed from a blend of Spanish Negretti Cabana and Rambouillet strains, developing long, superfine wool. Deuchar began breeding cattle, especially Shorthorns, and brought to Rosenthal Lord Raglan, the first imported Shorthorn bull to reach the Downs, and well bred cattle from the Australian Agricultural Co’s properties farther south. He also developed a horse racing stud, and his stallion Grey Arab, bought from one of the Aberdeen Co’s properties, sired many fine horses which Deuchar rode successfully at race meetings both on the flat and over fences.[1]

In 1855 Deuchar went into partnership with Marshall on Glengallan, and continued his stock breeding. His overseer William Anderson had been at school with him and had come to the colony on the same ship. Deuchar insisted on building up his own teams of employees, and on taking over Rosenthal and Glengallan he dispersed the families on the properties and replaced them with other employees already known to him.[1]

In 1857 Deuchar married Eliza Charlotte Lee, the sister of Dr Washington Lee of Warwick, in Paddington Sydney, and travelled to Europe in 1858-60 where he purchased stock which would become important in building up Glengallan’s flocks. In Germany Deuchar selected ten rams and ten ewes from the flocks of Baron Von Malzahn at Lenschow in Mecklenburg, of which Marshall made a further selection of ten rams and fifteen ewes in 1862, the last time that outside blood was introduced and the Glengallan Merinos were bred up from this stock.[1]

By 1865 Marshall and Deuchar had pre-empted 18,172 acres (7,354 ha), which rose to 31,166 acres (12,612 ha) by the end of 1867. This was 66% of the total run area which totalled 44,800 acres (18,100 ha), being the highest percentage of pre-empted selection of land of any run in the 1860-1874 period.[1]

By 1864 the Glengallan Head Station complex included two houses, stables and a kitchen, with new stables having been built prior to 1858. In 1866 it was described by Kate Hume, a visitor, as the house has been added to, till it resembles a village, connected by verandahs and covered ways![1]

Glengallan Homestead was constructed in 1867-68, and it is thought that Deuchar had been planning his house for some time. The extant office/store building with cellar was constructed in 1864 by local builder Donald Meiklejohn from local sandstone, and is thought to be both experimental and an integral part of the total envisaged precinct. A variety of sizes of sandstone block was used, unlike the regular masonry of the house or the irregular stonework of the verandah foundation. It has been suggested that the cellar was experimental in determining the movement and depth of the black soil, and that subsequently cellars were not chosen for the main house. It appears that the cellar was a cold store, and that the dry goods store was above, with the estate office.[1]

Deuchar had intended to build a much larger house, possibly in a U-shape plan, although he only had time and resources to build one wing of Glengallan Homestead. Unconfirmed reports state that a massive hole was dug for the foundations, up to 20 feet (6.1 m) wider than the building, till sandstone was reached. On this sandstone a massive platform of basalt rubble was laid, and the outer and dividing walls were then constructed and the intervening spaces refilled to ground level. During construction the Warwick Examiner and Times noted in November 1867 that Glengallan will be one of the most splendid gentlemen’s residences in the colony.[1]

The sandstone for Glengallan Homestead was quarried on the property, from an area near Swan Creek at Yangan, and the verandah sandstone, much coarser and softer, comes from Karcaruda, which was a former settlement and railway siding near Swan Creek.[1]

The construction of Glengallan was supervised by Warwick builder Thomas Wood, possibly for architect Charles Balding who, based in Ipswich, had opened a temporary office in Toowoomba and his practice extended to the Darling Downs. Balding had designed Gooloowan in Quarry Street, Ipswich, for Benjamin Cribb, which was built in 1863-64 and is noted as being similar to Glengallan. It has also been suggested that Richard George Suter (1827-1894) may have been involved, possibly taking over from Balding who left the colony in 1867. Suter later designed Jimbour House, a two-storeyed sandstone homestead built 1873-74.[1]

Deuchar had two suites of furniture made at Ebenstons in Queen Street, Brisbane, for the drawing and dining rooms. The fact that local materials and a local manufacturer were used was publicised in the Brisbane Courier in August 1868. Reports of the cost of the house vary between £5-12,000, and a gala opening party was held on 16 September 1868. The Deuchars hosted many social events during their time at Glengallan, and house guests included Governor Bowen and his family. Deuchar had envisaged the ground floor rooms as drawing room (north) and ball room (south), but were actually used as drawing room (south) and dining room (north) with bedrooms on the first floor.[1]

Nine months after the opening party, Glengallan was offered for sale. The cost of the pre-emptive purchase, building a grand house, a drought, and buying Marshall out of the partnership all contributed to Deuchar’s financial ruin. In early 1865 Deuchar had taken over sole control of the management of Glengallan, and contracted to buy the property by taking out a mortgage with Marshall payable in ten years.[1]

Deuchar was unable to pay instalments on the mortgage and in early 1869 Marshall agreed to Deuchar raising finance elsewhere and paying him out.[3] This did not occur and Deuchar, who also had significant other debts, sought to sell Glengallan starting in May 1869.[4] Brewster and Trebeck sought to auction the property on 7 July 1869,[5] deferred this to 21 July, but failed to attract a satisfactory bid.[6] The beginning of the end came in August when the Bank of Australasia started legal proceedings in the Queensland Supreme Court against Deuchar for the payment of an outstanding overdraft.[7] Another sale of Glengallan was proposed for 2 February 1870,[8] but this did not go ahead because Deuchar was declared bankrupt on that date.[9] At a final hearing in April 1870 Deuchar’s proven debts were £97,000 with £80,329 owed to Marshall and £15,859 to bankers.[10] The valuation of Glengallan, including all its stock, property and chattels, was £80,000 so Marshall exercised his pre-emptive, and secured, rights as mortgagee and took possession of Glengallan. This included the Deuchar silver plate (much of which had been paid for by Charles in England) and other contents of the household. Deuchar retired to Mile End in Warwick where he died of pneumonia aged 50 on 11 September 1872, survived by his wife, two daughters and six sons.[1]

During Deuchar’s occupation, the servants quarters and buggy shed were built, and the gardens and avenue of trees were laid out. The house water supply and sewerage disposal system was also developed, with the water being pumped from the creek using a 2.5 horse-power Bailey engine, and the pump appears to have been set on a sandstone block platform. The water was pumped to a holding tank below the bathroom, then up to a 200-gallon lead lined wooden roof tank supplying cold water for bath, shower and flushing toilet on the first floor. The large size of the roof tank was probably due to the type of toilet system used, a rare feature at the time, which had been invented in 1778 and required high water pressure. The pump was also used to irrigate the gardens around the house.[1]

During the next 20 years, the two early houses were demolished, and the covered way to one of the houses was truncated. A rear wing, known as the cedar wing, was built to provide guest rooms, estate office, cook’s bedroom and housekeeper’s room. The kitchen was built adjoining the side of the covered way, but separate from the stone house, and was set on stumps with a large chimney at its eastern end. The bath house was built against the western end of the south verandah.[1]

Marshall returned in November 1870[11] and remained until 1873 when he took William Ball Slade into partnership and again retired to England where he died in August 1874. The partnership continued however, with Marshall’s share transferred to his widow, Charlotte Augusta Dring Marshall, until 1904 when the property was sold.[1] Charlotte asked Slade to return the Deuchar silver plate to Eliza Deuchar in 1877.[12]

A new woolshed was completed to the northwest of the house in 1873, being approximately three times the size of the present woolshed. The earliest position of the woolshed is noted in 1859-60. The 1873 woolshed is noted as having a T-shape plan and could accommodate 22 shearers, and was described in 1892 as being a hardwood structure, with a shingle roof, that could accommodate 1,000 sheep. The exact position of the washpool has been disputed, but some sources indicate that it was located upstream from the house. Clean wool was abandoned in favour of greasy wool with the cessation of sheep washing in the 1870s.[1]

During WB Slade’s time at Glengallan, many changes occurred resulting from the increased diversification of the property into dairying and crops. In the open areas fostered by the Aboriginal land management practices, prior to European settlement, a pasture dominated by nutritious grasses had developed. These grasses did not survive intensified stocking, particularly when fencing became a standard practice, and less nutritious grasses took their place. A gradual decline in the carrying capacity was noted during the period 1860-1880, and the solution was to improve the feed and as a result lucerne became a major crop.[1]

From 1842-1868 any cultivation was limited to paddocks lower than the house and closer to the creek. After 1868, Deuchar’s pump, installed to deliver water to the house, was used to irrigate nearby fields. After 1880, the benefit of lucerne as a fodder crop was recognised and the cultivation of wheat and other grains began to assume importance. For the following 80 to 90 years, many of the paddocks above and near the house were cultivated for crops, and much soil was washed away.[1]

Stud short horn bulls at Glengallan Station, 1894
William Ball Slade (1843-1938) was born in Somerset, England, and after some legal training migrated to Sydney in 1861 where his elder brother was practising as a solicitor. After pastoral experience in New South Wales and Queensland, Slade married Sophia Thompson on 1 March 1873 at St Mark’s Church of England Warwick, and that year became manager and partner of Glengallan. Deuchar had established notable Shorthorn and Merino studs, and between the droughts of 1872 and 1902 Slade developed the Shorthorn stud to over one thousand pedigree females, one of the largest in the world. The Merino stud had such prestige that Slade maintained a closed flock until 1916. During that time he developed a heavier-fleeced flock, with wool that was stronger, of greater length and often brighter. He kept another line of Merinos of Vermont strain, separate from the Glengallan foundation stock, and also bred Lincolns. He exported stud Merinos to the Cape of Good Hope in 1888, a connection which was long continued.[1]

Many more staff were required at Glengallan, even though shepherding was abandoned in favour of fenced paddocks, and sheep washing ceased in the 1870s. Glengallan concentrated on stud sheep and cattle, with fat lambs becoming important once rail transport and refrigeration came into the economic realm. One of Slade’s achievements was to transform Glengallan from a traditional pastoral stud property to one where intensive cultivation of lucerne and other fodder supported not only the stud stock but also wethers bought for fattening from western properties, and he was praised by contemporaries as the best manager in the Darling Downs. Further diversification included dairying and a substantial piggery.[1]

At some point it appears that the main flow of Glengallan Creek became diverted down Backwater Creek, for what reason is not known. By 1892 three dams had been constructed on Glengallan Creek to provide irrigation to the paddocks. Water was still being pumped from the creek in the 1890s, but by the early 1900s water was being supplied by a bore on the northwest of Mt Marshall to a holding tank near the woolshed, and the house water system was reliant on rain water. The original timber shingles to the roof of Glengallan were sheeted over with corrugated iron and stormwater drainage was introduced. Pipes were installed at both the northwest and southwest corners of the house, with the northwest pipe feeding into the stone lined channel that runs along the west side of house with sandstone capping pieces. Pipes also fed into the roof tank.[1]

In 1885 Glengallan covered 42,000 acres (17,000 ha), and from 1896 to 1904 Glengallan was progressively broken up into smaller units. After the original leases had expired in the 1860s, lease holders were permitted to acquire large areas by pre-emptive claim and further purchases. Considerable pressures were put upon the pastoralists due to demand for smaller land holdings, eventually resulting in the Selection Acts of the 1860s and 1870s which forced them to borrow heavily, and the fluctuation of wool prices meant that it was difficult for them to make a profit. The Agricultural Lands Purchase Act of 1894 was the instrument by which many of the large estates on the Downs were broken up. Under this Act, the Glengallan partnership restored its capital and recouped drought losses in three major subdivisions between 1895 and 1904, when the partnership came to an end. Slade actively offered his property to the Government and lobbied local Members of Parliament to assist in ensuring his offer was accepted.[1]

In 1904, after the three major subdivisions, Slade retained 3,000 acres (1,200 ha) and repurchased the Glengallan Homestead block, reportedly between 1,275 and 2,000 acres (810 ha) in size, from the Government for £10,265. Later in 1904, Slade transferred the Glengallan Homestead and accompanying 482 acres (195 ha) to GH Gillespie, a member of the well known firm of Victorian Millers. It appears that by 1907, Clara Gillespie was farming the Glengallan Homestead portion with her son Alexander Frederick Gillespie.[1]

Slade named his smaller estate East Glengallan, built himself a residence and continued with the Glengallan Merino and Shorthorn studs. Slade acquired properties near Warwick and at Gore, towards Inglewood, for his family. In 1912 East Glengallan was subdivided with the eldest son Oswald Carey Slade (1882-1956) managing the Merino stud. Slade’s other son Adrian also managed or was proprietor of award-winning studs.[1]

WB Slade is celebrated as the archetypal Anglo-Australian patrician of Warwick, and was patron, office-bearer and benefactor of show societies, his church, Masonic Lodge and the Warwick branch of the Royal Society of St George. His great avocation was cricket, and he donated Slade Park to the Queensland I Zingari Cricket Club, which formed 1868 and of which he was one of the first members and Captain for almost 30 years. He established annual cricket matches at Glengallan and a pavilion was constructed. In 1932 he was appointed CBE, and he died 18 April 1938 and is buried in the Warwick cemetery. His name is remembered by the Slade School, Warwick.[1]

Slade established a school, which had opened by 1886, and paid for its construction, desks, furniture and teacher. It was taken over by the Education Department in 1891, and was closed and relocated in 1904 when that portion of Glengallan was purchased by the government. Slade also gave 2 acres (0.81 ha) to the Anglican Church, and St Andrew’s Church was opened in 1908. St Andrew’s was described as a weatherboard church that could accommodate 200 people, painted dark red with pale green glass casement windows and a vestry at the western end. The church has since been relocated to St David’s, Allora, and is attached to the hall.[1]

The only alteration made to Glengallan Homestead by Slade is thought to be the timber partition in the first floor northern room to accommodate children’s bedrooms.[1]

By 1904 the structures at the head station consisted of Glengallan Homestead, with the rear cedar wing, kitchen and bath house attached, sandstone office/store, two storeyed stables, buggy shed, and servants quarters. The garden comprised a tennis court (often used for cricket practice) to the northeast of the house, a gravel/cobbled semi- circular drive lined by semi-circular garden beds and an extensive shrubbery, a lawn with a central circular garden, a tree lined drive (planted by Deuchar), and a box hedge separating the formal garden from the productive gardens. An orchard was located on the southern side of the house and was terraced down to Glengallan Creek which was fringed with willows. A vegetable garden was also located on the southern side or behind the house. Glengallan was described as giving the appearance of a picturesquely scattered township, and included many outbuildings and a large complex of structures nearer to the woolshed.[1]

Clara Gillespie was declared insolvent in July 1910, and it appears that the property was transferred to her son Alexander Frederick Gillespie in January 1912. It is noted that financial problems plagued AF Gillespie, and during his occupation of the property there appears to have been no new buildings erected and some may have begun to deteriorate. It appears that the Glengallan Homestead portion was transferred to Oswald Carey Slade (son of WB Slade) in July 1918, and AF Gillespie died in 1926-27.[1]

Oswald Carey Slade installed a manager, and it is recorded that the Atkinson family lived in the main house in 1927. Another manager and his family occupied the house from 1931 until he retired due to ill health in 1944-45. This was the last family to live at the house. During OC Slade’s ownership, the property further deteriorated with the area between the house and the office/store turned into a farmyard.[1]

In 1919, Glengallan was described as being approached via a winding drive over a quarter mile long, with magnificent pine trees lining either side of the drive, a neat picket fence of 270 yards (250 m) surrounds the garden area, broken by a substantial gateway of stone pillars and iron gates. It was also described as having cobbled areas to the north side of the house and approaching the office/store doors, a fernery, small vineyard, homestead enclosure and adjacent small paddocks irrigated by pipes which were supplied by elevated tanks filled by a pump, stables with feed room and harness room, buggy shed for three vehicles, and a couple of six-room cottages for married men and their families. By this time, much of the infrastructure which originally supported Glengallan would have been disused or much modified.[1]

Leslie centenary memorial gates, 2015
The two-storeyed stables burned down, probably in the late 1920s, and a stone paved and corrugated iron roofed shed was erected partly over the site. This was possibly also the site of the earlier stables as sketched by Conrad Martens in 1852, which were also possibly built on the site of the c.1842 stables. In the early 1930s the first floor of Glengallan House was unoccupied and the servants quarters, a long narrow timber building comprising rooms opening onto a verandah, was demolished. The stone pillars and iron gates were removed in 1940 to Leslie Park in Warwick where they were re-used to commemorate the centenary of the arrival of the Leslie brothers and the establishment of Canning Downs.[13][14] In 1946 the kitchen and bath house were removed to other parts of the property, and later that year the cedar wing was dismantled and sold to Eddie Mogridge of Tannymorel, and it has subsequently been moved to Swanfels. The remains of a cemetery is located at a distance from Glengallan House to the southwest, but the date of establishment is not known.[1]

Oswald Carey Slade was childless, and in 1931 he transferred East Glengallan to the Anglican Church, subject to a life tenancy.[1]

In 1949 Mr and Mrs OC Slade gave Glengallan Homestead to the Anglican Church. The Anglican Church had plans to dismantle Glengallan and use the materials to build a War Memorial Science Block at the Slade School in Warwick, but this did not eventuate. The school leased the property to various people for farming purposes.[1]

After the property was accepted by the Anglican Church, no development was seriously attempted. Glengallan Homestead was left often open and used as shelter by goats and birds, and many of the fittings were removed. In 1972 the property was transferred to the Smith family. Glengallan was left unoccupied, its remaining gardens were turned into paddocks, and the slow creep of soil from cultivated paddocks above was allowed to continue. The only visible structures were the main house and the sandstone office/store.[1]

A 1975 report noted that the structure was in reasonably good condition, some sheets of corrugated iron had blown off the roof and the verandahs had deteriorated. By 1983 the southern verandah had collapsed and the eastern verandah was unstable, water was entering the building and more corrugated iron sheets were missing.[1]

In 1983, a group of fourth year architecture students from the University of Queensland made a set of measured drawings of Glengallan House. These were followed up by a conservation analysis funded by a National Estate Grant in 1983, 1984 and 1986, carried out by the Department of Architecture University of Queensland. Recommendations for the conservation and management of Glengallan were made, but no organisation was willing to undertake them. In 1993 Glengallan House and its surrounding grounds were gifted to the non-profit Glengallan Homestead Trust which was formed in 1993.[1]

Since then archaeological excavations have been carried out, mainly involving the drainage, water and sewerage systems. However, works have also been carried out resulting in some damage to the property. These works include the removal of black soil overburden, the provision of water, power and telephone, the installation of a toilet block and septic system, excavation for rebuilding of verandah walls, the construction of a shed, and the verandahs have been largely removed. The roof has been repaired, with some new structural members being inserted, and resheeted with corrugated iron with some of the original timber shingles being retained in situ.[1]

Glengallan Homestead is open to the public for viewing.[15]


Wall showing ruinous state before conservation, 2015
Glengallan Homestead is located on the southwestern slope of Mount Marshall at the mouth of a wide valley, running west from Cunningham’s Gap, near the junction of the Cunningham and New England Highways approximately 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) north of Warwick. The fenced area of land on which the homestead is located is accessed via an easement from the New England Highway to the southwest. The homestead has been in a ruinous condition but is undergoing conservation works.[1]

The homestead is a long, narrow two-storeyed ashlar sandstone structure, built on an approximately north-south axis, with a hipped corrugated iron roof. The symmetrical principal elevation faces in an easterly direction overlooking the valley and towards Mount Dumaresq in the distance, which it resembles in silhouette. The rear elevation has projecting sandstone blocks on the north and south ends, indicating the intended two-storeyed extensions which were never built and which would have formed a U-shaped plan. The building originally had a timber shingled roof, and some of these shingles remain under the corrugated iron sheeting.[1]

The building has the remains of double height verandahs to the north, east and south. The most intact section of verandah is located at the northern end, with the southern end almost completely missing. The ground floor verandahs have paired, narrow ornamental cast iron columns, which were produced by the Russell Foundry of Sydney, in front and to either side of a tubular cast iron column which was intended to support the load above. These columns are currently in place only to the northern end and part of the western side, and are supported by sandstone plinths which in turn are supported by a footing wall. The paired Russell Foundry columns were also located on the first floor verandah where they acted as structural members. The inside face of the columns had timber panelling which, to the ground floor verandah, aligned with expressed false beams in the timber panelled ceiling. The ground floor columns support a timber web truss, which in turn supports the first floor verandah above. The first floor verandah had cast iron balustrades, also produced by the Russell Foundry, which have been removed.[1]

The ground floor verandahs originally had a fixed timber louvred panelled frieze, which was the remnants of a louvred system intended to have panels which ran in tracks located at the side of the columns allowing the verandah to be enclosed, but where venetian blinds were installed instead. The ground floor verandahs had timber floors which have been removed, and a central set of sandstone steps accessing the main entrance on the eastern side.[1]

Fanlights, 2015
The east and south walls have smooth faced sandstone blocks, while the north and west walls have picked faced sandstone. Both floors have French doors with arched fanlights opening onto the verandahs, with three sets of doors either side of the central entry, and all arched headers have expressed vermiculated keystones. The central entry has double doors with sidelights, and an arched fanlight with coloured glass segments surmounted by an expressed keystone carved in relief with the initials JD 1867 surrounded by a garland of leaves. The doors and sidelights have timber lower panels with etched, arched glazed upper panels. The French doors are similar and open inwards. Originally these doors had a second set of doors which opened outwards and contained a timber lower panel with an upper panel of copper mesh, presumably as an insect screen. The ground floor north and south elevations have a projecting sandstone bay with a central French door flanked by a tall, narrow sash window.[1]

The ground floor western wall has timber panelled doors with arched fanlight at the north and south ends. A similar doorway is located in the centre under the internal staircase, but the door is missing. These doors are accessed by rough sandstone steps and a timber ramp, and a stone lined stormwater drain is located in front of and running parallel to this wall. A tall sash window is located above the central door, with a smaller sash to either side. This symmetrical elevation has two chimney stacks which have picked-faced sandstone to the base, and smooth-faced sandstone above surmounted by a large cornice with curved capping pieces. The western wall has marks in the sandstone above the northern door which indicate the roof profile of the covered way which was originally located connected there.[1]

Dining room, 2015
Internally, the building has a symmetrical plan with a central hall and stairwell flanked by the former dining room on the north and former drawing room on the south. The first floor has a bedroom at either end, separated from the stairwell by an ante room and linked by a short hallway. The plaster finishes are thought to be original, but have suffered much water damage.[1]

All the masonry walls are plastered, and on the first floor the non-masonry walls are lath and plaster. The ceilings are lath and plaster, and all rooms have plaster cornices, with the widths and designs varying in different rooms. Principal rooms have ornate central plaster ceiling roses, with the dining room containing two roses which would have been positioned above a central table. Throughout the building, the skirtings, architraves, doors and floor boards are cedar. Doors are panelled with etched, arched glass fanlights, and evidence of early decoration include brackets for curtain rods.[1]

Drawing room, 2015
The drawing room originally had a white marble fireplace surround with relief carving of fruit, and the dining room had a black marble fireplace surround, both of which have been removed. The main bedroom, on the south, has a cedar fireplace surround and evidence of a shelving unit which was located between the chimney breast and adjacent wall but was probably not an original fitting. The adjacent ante-room housed a bathroom, and surviving evidence include vertically jointed timber panelling and a cedar surround for a shower rose. The bathroom originally housed a slate bath and flushing toilet. The northern bedroom has a vertically jointed timber partition wall which divides the room in two but which does not reach the ceiling height. This room had a cedar fireplace surround which has been removed, but the register grate is in place. The adjacent ante-room is thought to have been a nursery or dressing room.[1]

The stairwell contains a U-shaped curving cedar staircase which as been partly restored. A protective timber cover and temporary handrail has been installed, with the original turned cedar balustrade and handrail in place to the first floor landing. The stair is lit by a tall sash window.[1]

To the west of the homestead is the office/store. This single-storeyed sandstone building has a hipped corrugated iron roof, which originally had timber shingles, and a cellar. The stonework consists of a rough alternation of thick and thin bands, and the northern elevation has a central entrance flanked by a window to either side. A second entrance is located on the eastern side facing the homestead, two windows are located on the southern side, and the cellar is entered from the west via a flight of seven sandstone steps, but the original entrance door has been removed. The building has air vents to the cellar just above ground level. Internally, this building originally had two rooms with separate entries, but the internal wall has been removed. The walls are plastered and a ceiling has been installed. Remains of cobbled paths around the building are evident.[1]

Cultivation of the paddocks above the homestead has resulted in the site being mantled in 300 millimetres (12 in) of black soil. Some of this overburden has been removed, but the majority of the site has been protected and the position of early structures may be able to be identified with further investigation. Excavations have been undertaken to the site of the cedar wing and kitchen complex, stables, stormwater drains and sewerage system, and to a large part of the area north and west of the office. The site boundary fence passes across the corner of the partly excavated area of the stables.[1]

The remains of the gardens include two Norfolk Island Pines appear to mark the position of the original entrance gates and stone pillars to the northeast of the homestead. The form of the raised tennis court and curved drive can be determined, and a number of mature trees are located at the northern end of the homestead. Remains of the orchard, to the south of the homestead, include a number of gnarled and twisted fruit trees.[1]

Mummified cat, 2015
An unexpected discovery during conservation works was the remains of a mummified cat underneath the floorboards. It is not known if the cat was accidentally entombed there or whether it was linked to medieval practice to ward off evil spirits, possibly linked to building trade guilds.[16]

Heritage listing
Glengallan Homestead was listed on the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992 having satisfied the following criteria.[1]

The place is important in demonstrating the evolution or pattern of Queensland’s history.

The district surrounding Glengallan Homestead was part of the area Allan Cunningham discovered and explored in 1827. The Glengallan Run was part of the first Darling Downs run, selected by Patrick Leslie in 1840, and was established and named by brothers Colin and John Campbell in 1841-42. The approximate site of the present homestead appears to have been established c.1842, and since that time has been located in a pivotal position on the main roads, which have changed slightly in position, from Toowoomba/Drayton heading towards the south and from the Downs properties heading towards Cunningham’s Gap.[1]

The homestead was built in 1867-68 by John Deuchar who, with partner Charles Henry Marshall, established the famous Glengallan Merino flock and Shorthorn stud. The breeding tradition established by Deuchar was further developed by William Ball Slade who maintained the pre-eminence of the Glengallan stud from 1873 until the property was sold in 1904. Slade also transformed Glengallan from a traditional pastoral stud property to one where intensive cultivation of lucerne and other fodder supported not only the stud stock but also wethers bought for fattening from western properties. Further diversification included dairying and a substantial piggery, and Slade was praised by his contemporaries as the best manager on the Darling Downs. Slade was also described as the archetypal Anglo-Australian patrician of Warwick, being a patron, office-bearer, benefactor and member of numerous societies, clubs, the Masonic Lodge and Anglican Church.[1]

The place demonstrates rare, uncommon or endangered aspects of Queensland’s cultural heritage.

Glengallan Homestead is a two-storeyed sandstone structure and as such, with the exception of Jimbour House, is a rare example of a Queensland homestead of that period which were mainly single-storeyed timber structures. Although the homestead was built as part of a larger, uncompleted design, the grand architectural concept can be appreciated and, with its picturesque siting, the building is recognised as a landmark in the surrounding rural landscape.[1]

The place has potential to yield information that will contribute to an understanding of Queensland’s history.

The site contains archaeological remains which could provide further information concerning the living conditions on the property and the development of the homestead and associated complex of buildings from the 1840s.[1]

The place is important in demonstrating the principal characteristics of a particular class of cultural places.

The homestead and surrounding landscape provide evidence of the way of life of a large Darling Downs Station, from its establishment to eventual decline, and the building is symbolic of the power and prestige of the Darling Downs squatters in the mid to late nineteenth century.[1]

The place is important because of its aesthetic significance.

As a ruin of a grand homestead, which has strong associations with the history and pastoral development of the Darling Downs, the building has unique aesthetic and cultural attributes and has been the subject of much community concern and recent conservation action, as reflected in its current administration by the Glengallan Homestead Trust Ltd.[1]

The place is important in demonstrating a high degree of creative or technical achievement at a particular period.

The fabric of the building exhibits a sophisticated design approach, and the detailing of the materials reflects a fine quality of craftsmanship. Some elements of the building were technically innovative for the time, particularly the verandah louvre system and French doors with insect screens, reflecting a consideration for the Queensland climate and conditions.[1]

The place has a strong or special association with a particular community or cultural group for social, cultural or spiritual reasons.

As a ruin of a grand homestead, which has strong associations with the history and pastoral development of the Darling Downs, the building has unique aesthetic and cultural attributes and has been the subject of much community concern and recent conservation action, as reflected in its current administration by the Glengallan Homestead Trust Ltd.

The place has a special association with the life or work of a particular person, group or organisation of importance in Queensland’s history.

The district surrounding Glengallan Homestead was part of the area Allan Cunningham discovered and explored in 1827. The Glengallan Run was part of the first Darling Downs run, selected by Patrick Leslie in 1840, and was established and named by brothers Colin and John Campbell in 1841-42.[1]

The homestead was built in 1867-68 by John Deuchar who, with partner Charles Henry Marshall, established the famous Glengallan Merino flock and Shorthorn stud. The breeding tradition established by Deuchar was further developed by William Ball Slade who maintained the pre-eminence of the Glengallan stud from 1873 until the property was sold in 1904.[1]

Slade was also described as the archetypal Anglo-Australian patrician of Warwick, being a patron, office-bearer, benefactor and member of numerous societies, clubs, the Masonic Lodge and Anglican Church.[1]


Dry Cleaning & Alterations
Image by mrbill78636
… honoring the women of the world whose job description would include hotel management, restaurant management, crisis center, minor medical emergency clinic, psychological counseling center, sewing and alteration center, laundry and dry cleaning shop, small appliance repairs, janitorial service center, landscaping, gardening centers and a long list of other centers and responsibilities. Often this is all accomplished while working around an outside eight hour job. It’s called multitasking.

“Dry” (or barren) silica-carbonate alteration

“Dry” (or barren) silica-carbonate alteration
Dry Cleaning & Alterations
Image by Pete Tillman
Northern SLO County, for a short time in the mid 19th century, was among the leaders in mercury (quicksilver) production in California. Mercury was then used to recover fine gold from placer "clean-ups" — and still is, in small-scale placer mining worldwide.

There’s a LOT of quartz veining and stockworks in the rocks exposed along the northern SLO coast. (There’s plenty more in the backwoods, but it’s harder to spot, and generally off-limits to geo-tourists). So this is an example of barren quartz mineralization, that the early-day prospector could (and did) reject.